Dragoman backs his findings. Here are his conclusions in part. He is not so arrogant as to assert he has done a better job than others. Nonetheless, he reckons he is close to the mark. Unlike the great majority of commentators, he did not use common opinion or historical statements and documents but straight biblical exegesis, linguistic and etymological word breakdowns, contextual analysis in the light of chemical, physical, and noticeable properties of the various candidates.

A book around 150 pages will shortly be available, explaining his reasoning in great depth. References are from the Authorized King James version of the Word of GOD.


SARDIUS: ODEM: red, ruddy spinels, red/orange garnets,  carnelian but not ruby. Gemstones of earth colours; red , tan, brown, even blackish.

TOPAZ: PITDAWH: diamond not topaz. Africa is famous for diamond not topaz.

CARBUNCLE: BAWREHQEHTH: like lightning; lapis lazuli and electric blue hauyne prominent here.

EMERALD: NOPHEK: iridescent stones; opal eminent here, but also such as labradorite.

SAPPHIRE: SAHPPEER: corundum; sky blue and cornflower blue sapphires along with rubies highlight this list.

DIAMOND: YAHHALOM: gold/yellow coloured gemstones apart from gold /yellow specimens belonging to other classes; e.g. SINHALITE ought belong here.

LIGURE: LEHSHEHM: turquoise and EILAT stone, copper containing gemstones.

AGATE: SHEBOH: “ captivity” , red and  orange agates and onyxes equating with the sardonyx of the New Testament.

AMETHYST: AHCHLAWMAWH: purple to pink hued gemstones of  grape juice colours.

BERYL: TAHRESHEESH: emerald, aquamarine, chrysoberyl  mainly.

ONYX: SHOHAHM: blanched stones somewhat opaque and able to be visibly inscribed upon- chrysoprase, prase, and jade high in this category.

JASPER: YAWSHPHAY: upright, erect stones just like the topaz of today is so often and classically found.


JASPER: diamond definitely, not modern jasper.

SAPPHIRE: corundums- blue sapphires, rubies etc.

CHALCEDONY: copper/ zinc containing [ as part of their chemical composition]  precious stones.

EMERALD: iridescent stones ; opal, labradorite plus others.

SARDONYX: red/ orange agates and onyxes.

SARDIUS: earth range hue colours, blood red colours, flesh colours – gemstones possessing these.

CHRYSOLITE: gold/ yellow coloured gemstones not belonging in other classes.

BERYL: emerald, aquamarine, chrysoberyl .Zircon could also be situated together here.

TOPAZ: topaz namely but also others, perhaps fluorite, apatite, and tourmaline as well.

CHRYSOPRASUS: chrysoprase and prase mainly, also jade and nephrite, maybe incuding enstatite and olivine/peridot/pallasite,  plus others.

JACINTH: lapis iazuli, hauyne, sodalite, maybe lazulite also, even blue obsidian.

AMETHYST: amethyst as we know it. Maybe such as tanzanite and sugilite.


Gen 2:12 : the land of HAVILAH is definitely Australia with BDELLIUM being the chief iridescent stone and CHRYSOPRASE the chief ONYX. The HAVILAH people are the Australian Aboriginals although some of this Biblical ethnic nation are in Africa and India, though they know it not. All the corroborating data fits most excellently. More available soon.

GOD named the ethnic people and the territory the same

The  KURDS are a distinct ethnic people with GOD allocated domains. It can hardly be disputed they are biblical and ancient ELAM.

… not just an idle esoteric study . Also a tremendous exercise in logical reasoning and biblical exegesis.

Many translations engaged in guesswork here.