Also known as, the Kalaam Cosmological Argument for the existence of God.
- Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
- The universe began to exist.
- The universe has a cause. (Modus Ponens 1, 2)
Bx# x begins to exist
Cx# x has a cause
3. Bu⇒Cu (Universal Instantiation 1)
4. Cu (Modus Ponens 2, 3)