Also known as, the Kalaam Cosmological Argument for the existence of God.

  1. Whatever begins to exist has a cause.
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. The universe has a cause. (Modus Ponens 1, 2)


Symbolic form:

Bx# x begins to exist
Cx# x has a cause
u# universe
1. (x)(Bx⇒Cx)
2. Bu
3. Bu⇒Cu (Universal Instantiation 1)
4. Cu (Modus Ponens 2, 3)